Types of tourism

by florin

Based on the identified tourist objectives, the following types of tourism can be practised in the tourist locality Baia de Fier and in the area:

  1. Mountain and landscape tourism is bi-seasonal, winter and summer, including adventure tourism, in the context that the relief forms allow the practice of activities with a higher degree of risk and more intense physical efforts, such as mountaineering, climbing, caving, rafting, paragliding, etc. Landscape tourism is tourism undertaken in terms of the use of areas with important natural potential (mountains, lakes, wilderness, wooded areas, etc.), with attractive natural facilities. It is also a form of tourism in which the motivations of tourists and the sales pitch for products and travel focus on accommodation in nature, recreation and spending time in relatively undisturbed areas and/or outdoor activities. At the same time, the Rânca tourist area represents a pole of winter sports, due to the existence of a generous skiing potential and a particularly attractive natural environment.
  2. Sport fishing and hunting tourism. The existence of this type of tourism is ensured by the richness of the fish fauna in the waters of Gilort, Olteț, Motrului and the fauna in the forest areas. Hunting can be practised in the forests of Gorj County with the approval of the Forestry Directorate, during the periods permitted by law and in forests that are not part of the legally protected areas.
  3. Ecotourism According to the World Tourism Organisation, ecotourism is a form of tourism in which the main objective is to observe and raise awareness of the value of nature and local traditions and which must meet the following conditions: a) contribute to the conservation and protection of nature; b) make use of local human resources; c) have an educational character, respect for nature – raising the awareness of tourists and local communities; d) have a minimum negative impact on the natural and socio-cultural environment.

According to the National Strategy for the Development of Ecotourism in Romania, 2017-2026, the development of ecotourism activities in local communities and protected natural areas implies a series of socio-economic benefits, namely:

  • Generates local employment (directly in the tourism or related sectors). By increasing incomes and living standards for the local population, younger generations are encouraged to stay in the community;
  • Stimulates the local economy through the development of tourism infrastructure and services (accommodation, food, transport, recreational facilities, craft products and guide services, souvenirs);
  • Stimulates the rural economy by creating or increasing demand for agricultural products needed to provide tourist services;
  • Boosts infrastructure development, which also benefits the local population;
  • Stimulates the development of peripheral regions through capital injections;
  • Stimulates the improvement of intercultural relations in a region. Tourists often seek to learn about the traditions and customs specific to an ethnographic region and the host community is thus stimulated to revive folk traditions;
  • Under normal development conditions, tourism can lead to self-financing development mechanisms that can benefit the managers of protected natural areas as a tool for their conservation;
  • Supports conservation activities by convincing governments and the public of the importance of nature areas.

Enhancing the natural environment is one of the fundamental requirements of ecotourism. This statement actually leaves the door wide open to a wide range of activities, provided that they respect the above conditions. From this perspective ecotourism interfaces with other forms of nature-based travel. Thus, ecotourism activities can include: – types of adventure activities (e.g. rafting, canoeing, horse-riding on pre-arranged trails, ski touring, bicycle tours on prepared trails, etc.) guided excursions / guided hikes; – nature observation tours (flora, fauna); – excursions to experience nature conservation activities; – excursions to local communities (visiting cultural sites, visiting traditional farms, watching traditional cultural events, eating traditional food, buying traditional non-food products, etc.). ). which must meet the above conditions (contribute to the conservation and protection of nature; use local human resources; have an educational character, respect for nature – raising awareness of tourists and local communities; have minimal negative impact on the natural and socio-cultural environment).

  1. Scientific tourism. The presence of protected areas can be of interest to researchers for studying fauna and flora. In Rânca there is an experimental centre belonging to the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Craiova, which aims to contribute to the restoration of degraded mountain pastures by increasing the quality of the green mass and improving the soils, with a view to changing the floristic composition of the meadows. At the same time, within the Baia de Fier locality, scientific tourism can be practiced in protected areas such as the Muierilor Cave and the Ied Cave which are included in the Site of Community Importance ROSCI0128 North of Eastern Gorj (site which was designated in 2011 by the Order of the Minister of Environment and Forests 2387/2011, for the amendment of the Order of the Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development no. 1967/2007 on the establishment of the protected natural area regime of sites of Community importance as part of the European ecological network Natura 2000, in Romania, for the conservation of populations of 4 plant species, 11 mammal species, 2 amphibian species, 3 fish species, 2 invertebrate species and 25 habitats).
  2. Cultural and ecumenical tourism is a form of tourism focused on the cultural environment (including destination landscapes), values and lifestyles, local heritage, fine and performing arts, traditions and community resources. Architectural monuments: (Toti Sfintii Church, Sohodol Church, Baia de Fier Church, Polovragi Monastery.
  3. Event tourism. This type of tourism is ensured by the various national festivals of customs and traditions, popular celebrations and other local events that take place in the locality: the descent of the sheep from the mountain – Baia de Fier, St. Elijah’s Day (Nedeea), Transalpina Fest, the sheep’s ascent – Novaci.

The rural areas offer genuine hospitality based on the unpolluted environment, good quality wines and gastronomy and wonderful folk traditions. Although these forms of tourism are still in their infancy, there are houses and guesthouses in the region in Polovragi, Baia de Fier, Novaci, Runcu, Arcani, Peștișani, Tismana, Padeș. Special attractions: smoked trout from Tismana, cheese from Novaci, stone wine from Runcu, liquor from Baia, balmoș from Rănea.

  1. Speleological tourism is favoured by the presence of the Cheile Galbenului karst complex and numerous karst relief formations, the most important of which is the Muieriilor Cave. Although present on the territory of Baia de Fier, Ied Cave, Raven Cave and Pârcălabului Cave are not included in the tourist circuit. In the area, caving can also be practiced in the Oltețului Gorge, where the karst formation of the Polovragi cave is remarkable.
  2. Adventure tourism: winter sports: skiing – at present the ski area of Baia de Fier is limited to the Rânca area, which has 6 ski slopes (M1, M2, M3, M4, Rânca1 and Junior), with easy access and permanently monitored by the teams of the Rânca mountain rescue base, and a toboggan run specially arranged at the entrance to the Rânca area. In the administrative territory of Baia de Fier, according to the General Urban Plan, there are only 4 ski slopes out of the 6 specified above; caving – climbing – mountaineering; cycling, zip line, bungee jumping, night via ferrata, (route arranged on the cliff face of Cheile Galbenului. According to the representatives of the White Wolf Club, the route near the Muierilor Cave is the first via ferrata route in the world that can also be done at night. Via ferrata is a combined alpine technique, something between normal hiking and sport climbing, and the route is equipped with metal cable attachment points so that people with specific equipment can walk along this cable from the bottom to the top of the cliffs at the end of the route”).

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